Cultivation description lily - forcing (Source: edepot.wur.nl/430369)
Starting material is self grown or bought. Assume VIRUS-FREE starting material!
After harvesting, store bulbs at 2 ° C for 6-8 weeks (rest interruption).
Then grow bulbs for flowering or freeze bulbs for (long-term) storage. Disinfect bulbs in December to half
January and freeze in moist filler (garden peat, potting soil) in plastic. Also possible:save
wrapped andfrozen lily bulbs in ULO-cell (1 button less loss in flower forcing).
- Freezing temperature depending on lily type (see list*)
- Freeze until January 15th
- Each item in the stack / box must be at the desired temperature within 14 days. Asufficiently spacious
stacking ofbins / stacks is necessary for this
- Never freeze frozen bulbs for the second time (frost damage)
The correct freezing moment can be determined by determining the sugar content in the sprout.
Depending on the cultivar and variety, bulbs can be grown, if well preserved, for flower production until about a year after harvesting
. When bulbsstart sprouting, plant bulbs quickly to prevent frost damage. Not
frozen lilies can be stored only briefly; duration depends on cold store temperature and
time of theseason. Store thawed bulbs for max. 2 weeks at 1 ° C and 1 week at 5 ° C.
Bulbs from France and the Southern Hemisphere are better suited for long-term storage than Dutch bulbs.
- Dutch bulbs: forcing from February
- French bulbs: heat until October 1
- Southern hemisphere bulbs (New Zealand, Chile): forcing from October 1
* Freeze temperatures for lily bulbs in ° C
Asiatic hybrid. -2 ° C - Had natural rest break from ± 5 January 1 - Can be stored for 1 year
Oriental hybrid. -1.5 ° C - Preferably freeze immediately after lifting (without cold treatment)
- Had a natural break from 20 January 1 - By planting late harvesting time only in January
- From July there is a risk of sprouting in storage and frost damage (depending on cultivar and year)
- Keep until 1 August at the latest
Longiflorum hybr. -1.5 ° C - From July there is a risk of sprouting in storage and frost damage (dep.
of cultivarand year) - Keep until the end of August at the latest
L / A hybrid. -2 ° C 1 ° C At outside temperatures below 13° C
The ratio of light, temperature, air movement and ventilation must be easy to regulate. A big
air content in the greenhouse is a requirement for this. Sufficient space above the crop is necessary for this
buffering the air for a more equal climate (also space for installing an energy screen,
lighting and sprinkler system). Sufficient light in low-light months. Good
aeration options and screen capacity to keep ground and air temperatures so low as possiblein the summer months.
Greenhouse temperature per group in ° C.
Asiatic hybrid. 8-14 ° C
Oriental hybrid. 16 ° C
Longiflorum hybr. 16 ° C
L / A hybrid. 8-14 ° C
Via hot air or tube heating. Tubular heating is preferred (better heat distribution and
climate control). With hot air heating systems, pay attention to good heat distribution, good
incineration and leak-proof discharge of combustion gases (ethylene). Heating installation standard ± 220
Watt / m2 /hour. It is not desirable to hang a lot of pipes low because this can cause strong locally
radiant heat give uneven growing conditions, with an increased risk of flower bud desiccation.
Crop heating (pipes or hoses, temp. Max. 40 ° C) recommended for dry crop (inconnection with
Botrytis)and improvement of microclimate.
A stable climate reduces the risk of diseases and abnormalities (also fewer virus symptoms)
CO2 dosing installation:
Dosing CO2 has a positive effect on branch weight. Administration from "hanging stoves",
centrally from the boiler or application of pure CO2. Start as soon as it gets light, several hours to entire
Administer on a day, provided that the greenhouse is closed or there is little ventilation. There must be enough light for this
assimilation.With assimilation lighting it can be dosed throughout the day. Well secured
equipment important to prevent incomplete combustion and create ethylene and carbonmonoxide
Equal watering throughout the greenhouse is very important. Preference for irrigation pipe over crop
(good distribution, crop rinsing, crop cooling). Rain pipes overgrown as a crop
soil or drip hoses (less chance of ironing and Botrytis infestation). High RH in winter
In case of insufficient light in winter, especially to prevent bud drop, but also: prevention
insufficient growth, weaker crop, lighter leaf color, reduced shelf life.
Asiatic hybrids (cultivar-dependent) most susceptible to bud drop, Oriental hybrids least susceptible.
In winter months: good light-permeable greenhouse, lower planting density, lesslight-sensitive cultivars
scalding. Use screen cloth and plastic film to deteriorate lighting conditions.
Mandatory with lighting, but also recommended due to climate control and energy saving.
Preferably a movable screen that captures as little light as possible. Chalk layer from April to autumn
apply (or screen cloth).
Soil and water:
Asiatic and Longiflorum hybrids: pH 6 to 7
Oriental hybrids: pH 5.5 to 6.5
At least 40cm of well-drained soil.
Be careful with too salty (fresh) organic fertilizer and too much fertilizer.
Salinity max. 1.5 mS.
Chlorine content max. 1.5 mmol / l.
Sampling soil well before the start of cultivation and depending on structure, nutritional status and
salinity digested organic material through soil work, eg 1 m3 old digested cow dung per100
m3. Be careful with fresh manure (root burning)!
Heavier, more acidic soils: garden peat preferred. No farmyard manure ("ticklish"effect). Sand or lava
sand (flugsand)also possible.
Nutrient-poorsoils: sprinkle phosphate and potash in the form of simple fertilizers.
Do not apply fluorinated fertilizers; low-fluoride fertilizers such as bilime phosphate have the
The salinity of irrigation water must be low (EC max. 0.5 mS / cm). EC rainwater complies,EC source and
surfacewater can, especially during the summer, rise sharply. Chlorine content: max.Resp. 200 mg / l
(greenhouse) and 450 mg / l (outside).
If pouring with water above the stated standards, keep the soil constantly moist.
General cultivation measures:
Plant the bulbs in slightly moist soil immediately after arrival. First thaw frozen bulbsat 10 à
15 ° C. Do not refreeze thawed bulbs (frost damage). Bulbs not frozen and thawed max. 2
weeks at 0to 2 ° C and 1 week at 2 to 5 ° C.
Plant smaller bulb size in periods of low light
In open ground or in potting compost or coconut in containers, in glass or plastic greenhouses.
Plant lilies outdoors only in areas with favorable climate.
Start from disease-free soil
Keep the soil sufficiently cool in the first phase of cultivation
In warm weather, plant in the morning or evening; if necessary, postpone plants whenthe weather is too hot
Prevent bulbs (roots) from drying out during planting
Plant bulbs sufficiently deep (6 to 8 cm in winter, 8 to 10 cm in summer above the bulbs)
Plant density depends on lily group, period and soil type
Crop support during the winter months, with cultivar length greater than 80 to 100 cm and in case
of acceleration when harvesting
Applynitrogen 3 weeks after planting, both on nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich soils(e.g. 1 kg
calciumnitrate / 100 m2). If during cultivation crop becomes too light due to Ndeficiency, then up to 3 weeks before
yield 1 kgfast-acting nitrogen / 100 m2.
Target values of nutritional elements depending on the group.
Apply fertilizer manually or via a rain pipe. When applied via the A and B tank irrigation pipe
to avoid precipitation. After fertilizing via irrigation pipe, the crop is well after raining
prevention of leaf burn. When using rainwater, add Borax to the nutrient solution.
Regularly check the EC value of the soil during cultivation.
Moisten the soil a few days before planting. Immediately after planting, water well in a few times.
Top soil layer should be continuously moist. Too moist should be avoided.
Preferably water early in the morning. If necessary, extra heat or air to prevent Botrytis.
Only use chemical weed control if absolutely necessary. Weeding and prevention of
weeds by disinfecting soil for plants (steaming, flooding) are preferred.
Spray in the evening on a dry crop with 5 liters of water per 100 m2. Next day crop with
rinse the brittle well. Apply agents max. Twice a year in the same place and only
spot by spot.
Rooting (=first 1/3 of the cultivation period or until stem roots are formed) at 12 to 13° C.
If necessary, apply ground cooling in warmer months.
Pre-soak ina cold room (2-3 weeks at about 12 ° C) is beneficial.
After rooting period:
24-hour temperature per group in ° C.
Asiatic hybrid. 14 to 15 ° C
L / A hybrid. 14 to 15 ° C
Oriental hybrid. 16 to 17 ° C
O / T hybrid. 16 to 17 ° C
Longiflorum hybr. 14 to 16 ° C
Optimal RH is 70 to 80%. Avoid large fluctuations and allow changes in RH to be gradual
expired. Atlow RH outside air, air and water early in the morning. At high RH outside air
heating and airing simultaneously.
For temperature control and reduction of RH.
Keeping out the sun:
Influencing temperature, humidity and light conditions.
Cultivation on boxes:
Mainly used in Oriental hybrids.
Good moisture and airy medium. Coconut, potting soil or a mixture of peat types, if necessary. with
addition of coconut, perlite (fluorine-free) or sterilized rice husks or cultivation soil.
Oriental lilies pH 5.5 to 6.5. As stock fertilizer per m3 0.5 kg 12-14-14 incl. Trace elements.
When reusing potting soil, steam first.
Minimum insidedepth of boxes approx. 12-14 cm. Plants with at least 1 cm of potting soil under the bulb and 8 cm of potting soil
In the greenhouse or in a cold store. Minimum temperature in the rooting cell is -0.5° C (total inhibition).
Optimal rooting temperature is 12 to 13 ° C. At this temperature in March ± 3 weeks after planting
greenhouse, in August ± 2 weeks after planting in the greenhouse.
Watering in a greenhouse:
In connection with quick drying out in boxes, keep the soil continuously moist.
Outdoor flori culture:
From spring. Last planting date depending on climate. On dry soils with a light night frost (-1
to -4 ° C)water lily plants that are above the ground. Unavoidable damage at -5 ° C and below.
Preferably larger bulb sizes (more length), unless cultivar is sensitive to leaf burn. Planting depth
10-15 cmabove bulbs. Plant density 10% higher than in a greenhouse.
Other cultivation measures:
Fertilizationas in greenhouse cultivation. As fertilization, higher stock fertilization is spread (as salinity
soilpermits this) or apply slow-release fertilizer. If possible, use screen cloths during cultivation.
Pay a lot of attention for combating Botrytis, louse and virus.
Harvest and post-harvest treatments:
Flowering and harvest:
Harvest stage: branches with 10 or more buds have at least 3 buds colored, branches with 5 to10
buds at least two buds colored and for branches with less than 5 buds at least 1 bud coloured.
Harvesting by cutting is preferable to raising. Oriental and Longiflorum hybrids cannot
to be raised. Preferably harvest in the morning. Orientals susceptible to brown buds develop when
harvest on warm days (30 ° C or higher) followed by direct cold storage. To be prevented by
first allow it to acclimatise in water in the shed for a few hours before placing in a coldstore (4 to 5 ° C).
Can't tolerate high temperature
Part of the cultivars susceptible to leaf burn
Relatively small bulb size can be used
Genetically short cultivars
Suitable for long term storage
Less light requirement
Relatively large bulb size
Part of the cultivars are sensitive to iron deficiency
Geneticallys hort cultivars
Shorten cultivation time by means of long day treatment
Not always suitable for long-term storage
Can be grown all year round
Low light requirement
Part of the cultivars sensitive to iron deficiency
Long harvest period due to variation in growth
Low light requirement
Not sensitive to leaf burn
Fairly short brewing time
Use fairly thick bulb sizes for sufficient buds
L-O hybrids, OA hybrids, TA hybrids
(Source: Broeien van lelies. Theo de Geus, OnderwijsgroepNoordwest-Holland Agro & Groen. Update Hans Kok, DLV plant, juni 2013.
Translated by Lily Company BV. Disclaimer: No rights can be derived from any translation errors.)
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